Gerald Lee Carroll and DNA Mutation

Hi! I’m Gerald Lee Carroll. After all that’s happened in Japan, I’m very concerned. As you might know I, Gerald Lee Carroll, am a part of Greenpeace. This is why, today, I’ll bring up the issue with dna mutations.
Gerald Lee Carroll dna mutations
What causes dna mutations?
Mutations in DNA sequences generally occur through one of two processes:
1. DNA damage from environmental agents such as ultraviolet light (sunshine), nuclear radiation or certain chemicals
2. Mistakes that occur when a cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division.
1 Modifying nucleotide bases
Ultraviolet light, nuclear radiation, and certain chemicals can damage DNA by altering nucleotide bases so that they look like other nucleotide bases.
When the DNA strands are separated and copied, the altered base will pair with an incorrect base and cause a mutation. In the example below a “modified” G now pairs with T, instead of forming a normal pair with C.
Breaking the phosphate backbone
Environmental agents such as nuclear radiation can damage DNA by breaking the bonds between oxygens (O) and phosphate groups (P).
Breaking the phosphate backbone of DNA within a gene creates a mutated form of the gene. It is possible that the mutated gene will produce a protein that functions differently.
Cells with broken DNA will attempt to fix the broken ends by joining these free ends to other pieces of DNA within the cell. This creates a type of mutation called “translocation.” If a translocation breakpoint occurs within or near a gene, that gene’s function may be affected.
2. Mistakes created during DNA duplication
Prior to cell division, each cell must duplicate its entire DNA sequence. This process is called DNA replication.

DNA replication begins when a protein called DNA helicase separates the DNA molecule into two strands.

Next, a protein called DNA polymerase copies each strand of DNA to create two double-stranded DNA molecules.

Mutations result when the DNA polymerase makes a mistake, which happens about once every 100,000,000 bases.
Actually, the number of mistakes that remain incorporated into the DNA is even lower than this because cells contain special DNA repair proteins that fix many of the mistakes in the DNA that are caused by mutagens. The repair proteins see which nucleotides are paired incorrectly, and then change the wrong base to the right one.
Gerald Lee Carroll is an active member of Greenpeace USA, contributing with humanitarian and humble protesting journalism.

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Where to find Gerald Lee Carroll

Gerald Lee Carroll on Facebook

Gerald Lee Carroll blog

Gerald Lee Carroll on Twitter

Gerald Lee Carroll Photos

Gerald Lee Carroll Couchsurfing

Gerald Lee Carroll Tagged

Gerald Lee Carroll Youtube Channell

Gerald Lee Carroll on WordPress.com

Gerald Lee Carroll on Dailymotion

Gerald Lee Carroll on Gowalla

Gerald Lee Carroll on Lugares de viaje

Gerald Lee Carroll on MSN

Gerald Lee Carroll onpen ID

Gerald Lee Carroll on Google

Gerald Lee Carroll on Blog.ca

Gerald Lee Carroll on MySpace

Gerald Lee CarrollSite

Gerald Lee Carroll Blogtee

Gerald Lee Carroll Diary

Gerald Lee Carroll Lastsee

Gerald Lee Carroll Couchsurfing

Gerald Lee Carroll Delicious

Gerald Lee Carroll Deviantart

Gerald Lee Carroll Flixster

Gerald Lee Carroll Gather

Gerald Lee Carroll Geni

Gerald Lee Carroll Imageshack

Gerald Lee Carroll Imdb

Gerald Lee Carroll LiveJournal

Gerald Lee Carroll Lonlyplanet

Gerald Lee Carroll Mouthshut

Gerald Lee Carroll Netlog

Gerald Lee Carroll Photobucket

Gerald Lee Carroll Picassa

 

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Gerald Lee Carroll and Japan

Hi, I’m Gerald Lee Carroll back again with some thoughts on the Japan issue. As you might know I’m very concered about enviromental issues as I’m part of Greenpeace. You can see that in this post about Gerald Lee Carroll and Greenpeace

Gerald Lee Carroll

Gerald Lee Carroll

I’m still shocked by what’s happen over the last ten days. I still can’t think what would have happened if such a natural disaster would have stricken other countries with nuclear generators such as Pakistan, India, Russia or Brazil which clearly do not have emergency managing capabilities as efficient as those of Japan. Check out this interesting BBC analysis on the Japanese situation: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12825342
What if instead a tsunami would have hit the Central nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto located on the Brazil coast in Angra dos Reis, very close to Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo? Just think of it as a possibility, letting aside the fact that tsunamis do not occur in the Atlantic. But picture a flood of epic proportions, which do occur in that area that could take down the emergency systems. Without disregarding the Brazilian emergency systems we saw in 2010 that they are not ready for catastrophe scenarios.
Or closer to home, California has had its share of natural and man-augmented disasters (think of the fires two years ago). What would happen if we had a similar problem at Diablo Canyon, located on an earthquake area? The social disaster left by Katrina in New Orleans has shown us the weakness of the federal emergency response systems. It’s been a while but given the current economic situation my bets are not on the cash flow to the emergency systems.
I think it’s time to rediscuss our energy needs and the risks we are willing to take to be able to have a bunch of electrical devices at home?

If you want to read more on this debate check out this Australian page that summarizes the pros and cons of nuclear energy power plants: http://www.naturaledgeproject.net/TheGreatSustainabilityDebates-NuclearPower.aspx

Find out more about me at my Gerald Lee Carroll blog and Gerald Lee Carroll Facebook.

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Gerald Lee Carroll

Gerald Lee Carroll is currently living in Irvine, California. What he stands for is more important than who he is.

Gerald Lee Carroll supports Greenpeace. Gerald Lee Carroll Greenpeace Group. If you have not heard about them, Greenpeace is a non-governmental organization that tackles environmental issues around the world. The focuses of its work is on worldwide issues such as global warming, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling and anti-nuclear issues. Greenpeace is the leading independent campaigning organization that uses peaceful protest and creative communication to expose global environmental problems and to promote solutions that are essential to a green and peaceful future.

Greenpeace uses direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals. The organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties, and relies on more than 2.8 million individual supporters and foundation grants.

Gerald Lee Carroll is an active member of Greenpeace USA, contributing with humanitarian and humble protesting journalism.

His father, Gerald Lee Carroll, passed away after 32 year of honest and loyal work in a Tabacco plantation at a time were the negative consequences of both, explotation and consumption, were unknown.

If you want to know more, check Greenpeace’s great webpage: http://www.greenpeace.org or join it on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/greenpeace.international.

Personal Facebook Page for Gerald Lee Carroll

Become Part of his Group: Gerald Lee Carroll Greenpeace Group

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